A Christian Debate About Gay Marriage

Two experts discuss why they do or don’t support gay marriage.

This time last week, voters in North Carolina were heading to the polls to weigh in on Amendment One, a constitutional amendment that defined marriage as a union solely between a man and a woman, effectively shutting the door on same-sex marriage for the state. It passed—with more than 60 percent of the vote.

But you know all of this already, because the nation spent the rest of the week arguing about the outcome in North Carolina. Social media spheres erupted in hot debate. And then the president joined in. Though he'd expressed his support of civil unions, President Obama had long hesitated to make a conclusive statement about the legality of same-sex marriage. But on Wednesday, he became the first sitting president to publicly declare his support.

Amongst Christians, the same-sex marriage debate becomes even more intense, proving divisive in both policy and theology spheres. Even President Obama cited his Christian faith in his decision but acknowledged, "This position may be considered to put us at odds with the views of others." So, what does Scripture say about homosexual unions? And what bearing, if any, should Scripture have on the law? On both sides of the issue, believers are striving to determine how their faith should inform their political beliefs.

Today, Christians from either side of the aisle share their views.

A Christian argument against same-sex marriage: the family is fundamental

D.C. Innes is an associate professor of politics at The King's College in New York City.

Redefining the nature of the family is like trying to restructure the human body. No good can come of it. Underlying every good that we derive from society is the proper understanding and functioning of the family. Where family structure and authority weaken or disintegrate, these goods melt away. That’s why God instituted not just reproduction, but specifically marriage. God gave Eve to Adam to be his wife. She was “suitable” for him. God made no provision—whether in the garden or in Israel or in the church of Christ—for homosexual pairing. None. Indeed, He calls it an abomination (Lev.18:22).

Extending marriage to homosexuals destroys it for everyone. If two men can marry, or two women, what exactly is marriage? Is marriage just close friendship between any two people? Is it the solemnization of any two best friends in a sexual relationship? What’s solemn about that? Is the solemnity in the permanence of it? Surely it is people’s own business how long they want to remain friends and intimate. Why is the state involved? Why is the Church involved? Why are there weddings at all?

Same-sex marriage suggests all of these questions because it is a relationship that, in principle, has nothing to do with the begetting and moral formation of the next generation on which all of life depends. We have weddings as community events because every marriage, God willing, is the community’s lifeline to the future. It’s how we beget and train the next generation. The community has a stake in the permanence and health of the marriage. This is not true of homosexual couples by the very nature of the relationship.

Recognizing the homosexual relationship as a marriage, then, reduces everyone’s marriage to essentially that relationship. Sexual complementarity and childbearing would become optional add-ons, not an essential feature and a natural fulfillment. There would be nothing solemn, therefore, about anyone’s marriage, and no expectation of permanency. The indiscriminate sale of birth control and our easy divorce laws have already taken a heavy toll on our understanding of marriage, though the old ideas persist because of the nature of the union. But equating homosexual “marriage” with heterosexual marriage destroys the basis for those ideas.

It is tempting to bracket the moral question and view same-sex marriage as simply an issue of equal protection of the law. But that begs the question whether a homosexual relationship can, in principle, be a marriage at all.

Of course, nothing justifies personal cruelty toward people who, perhaps through tragic circumstances, are confused in their sexual desires. They are made in the image of God. Like any sinner, they need the love of God’s people if they are going to see the gracious way back to the Father through Christ. But justifying and dignifying sin, and calling something marriage that is not, is no way to love a sinner.

A Christian argument for same-sex marriage: the end of discrimination

Lisa Sharon Harper is the director of mobilizing at Sojourners. 

To be honest, as an evangelical who values the Scripture and justice, this issue has presented me with more biblical, constitutional and just plain practical conundrums than any other political issue. I’m comforted to know I am not alone. But for the purpose of this discussion, I will focus on one thing: same-sex marriage and the question of its legalization in the United States of America—not whether homosexual acts are sin or whether same-sex marriages should be sanctioned by the Church.

Divorce and remarriage after divorce are clearly sin, according to Jesus. Yet no party is rushing to introduce legislation to outlaw divorce. In fact, according to a 2008 study conducted by George Barna, born-again Christians are slightly more likely to have experienced a divorce (32 percent) than atheists and agnostics (30 percent).Thus, even by our own standards, the biblical sinfulness of a private act does not determine whether legislation should be levied to outlaw it.

Given the fact that we live in a pluralistic democracy with a spectrum of experiences and deeply held convictions at play, how then shall we live together?

I agree with Tony Campolo, the prolific evangelical preacher and evangelist who, in 2003, stood in the shadow of the Federal Marriage Amendment and stated in a public debate with his wife, Peggy, a staunch advocate of gay rights, that, “At this particular point, we have to agree on one thing: [gay and lesbian people] are entitled to an end to all forms of discrimination. There should be no legal system that gives rights to heterosexual couples that it does not make available to homosexual couples.”

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Are lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people human? If they are human, then they, too, are made in the image of God. If they are made in the image of God, then they, too, in Genesis 1 were given free will—the right to exercise liberty over their bodies and their lives. This right applies even when I disagree with the liberties they take. What’s more, the fact that gay and lesbian people are made in the image of God endows them with intrinsic value and the same basic rights and protections afforded to any other human being. To legislate anything less is to set up a society that formally declares a certain class of people as less than human.

The truth is that institutions of marriage and family have been on an ever-changing journey since the founding of our nation. The institution of marriage is not static. It is dynamic—and as a woman, an African-American woman, I say thankfully so.

The Church and society are still splitting over the rightness or wrongness of homosexual acts. But we can know that we are talking about people—people made in the image of God. And as long as we maintain a dehumanizing legal system that gives fundamental rights and protections to some and not to a class of others, our society is in sin.

Excerpted from Left, Right and Christ: Evangelical Faith in Politics by D.C. Innes and Lisa Sharon Harper, © 2011. Published by Russell Media, www.russell-media.com. Used by permission. 

What are your personal views on same-sex marriage? What do you think of the arguments above? Join the discussion below—and please, play nice.

Top Comments

Christopher May


Christopher May replied to Michael Grady's comment

This seems like a fairly weak argument. Should we not allow women who are infertile, or men who are impotent to get married for the same reasons? are you calling them discriminatory as well? What about couples who choose not to have children should they have the right to marry? Your first argument makes it seem like a married couple must have babies when many choose not to, or choose to adopt (which homosexuals can choose to do as well).


Tammie Diggs


Tammie Diggs commented…

I think the reason that Christians have lost control of the marriage issue is because we as Christians are not treating marriage as sacred or solemn. I have worked in the legal field for 20 years and seen untold numbers of divorces. 90% of the divorces I have been involved with were because either or both of the parties found someone "better". We are fickle people and think that we must have that "in love" feeling at all times. We probably ought to quit fighting some of these "important" issues and starting working on our own lives. I am from a heterosexual family and am in a heterosexual relationship, but I have a dad and step-mom, mom and step-dad, 2 brothers, 2 step-brothers, 2 step-sons, a daughter, and a husband. Things get crazy, and our family is really no different than the biggest majority of them. (I will point out that my husband did not divorce, his wife died.)

Christopher May


Christopher May commented…

It seems to me that this whole debate would not be as big of an issue if the spiritual covenant of marriage was not attached to state benefits and privileges. What if we had two separate and distinct processes and/or cerimonies... One for those who would choose to enter into the spiritual covenant of marriage, and another that would be a legal partnership that would entitle the couple to state benefits.

This way churches if they choose to could still take a hard stance against homosexuality, and the state could decide on a set of standards and laws for who could and couldn't enter into a legal partnership which would include state benefits and privileges...

As Christians we shouldn't be getting married for the benefits anyway, but we would still have the choice to pursue a legal state partnership after entering into the spiritual covenant of marriage.

whey aren't we seriously talking about this option?

James Duren


James Duren commented…

I really believe that it's not our job as Christians to force unbelievers to live like believers. They don't have the Holy Spirit to renew their mind in such a way that causes to hunger for God's standards of life. So, in an issue like this, why would ever expect a secular government to make laws that exclude secular citizens from marriage rights? I wrote more about this on my blog, www.jrduren.blogspot.com.

Daniel Claggett


Daniel Claggett commented…

Everyone has to realize a few things. I do agree that if the church had done more when the issue was first coming up more in todays daily society, then we could have had a more potent effort. Now that being said, Homosexual individuals and heterosexual individuals ALL have the same exact rights. We can call vote, hold a job, and Shockingly...marry. Every single homosexual person on this planet can and has the ability to marry. "Discrimination of marriage" is not that at all but "Discrimination of desires".

Daniel Claggett


Daniel Claggett replied to Daniel Claggett's comment

And to comment on this section of the article above.

"Are lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people human? If they are human, then they, too, are made in the image of God. If they are made in the image of God, then they, too, in Genesis 1 were given free will—the right to exercise liberty over their bodies and their lives. This right applies even when I disagree with the liberties they take. What’s more, the fact that gay and lesbian people are made in the image of God endows them with intrinsic value and the same basic rights and protections afforded to any other human being. To legislate anything less is to set up a society that formally declares a certain class of people as less than human."

Yes, it is true that we are all made in the image of God and are all given the gift of free-will. Multiple times in bible is homosexuality condemned however. Yes, we are allowed to do whatever we want to our bodies but as soon as it goes against Gods word and commands then it becomes a sin.

Anthony Vernon


Anthony Vernon commented…

I believe that homosexuality is wrong, and that it is a sin. But that does not mean that we as Christians should hate homosexuals or treat them with disrespect. We should love them just as Christ loved us. We should treat all people with dignity and respect, no matter who they are or what they have done, because we are all made in the imago Dei (the image of God). We should love the homosexuals in spite of their sin, and yet not condone what they do.

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